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Citing Sources: APA

Learn about plagiarism, copyright, fair use, and how to cite sources using APA and MLA citation formats.

APA General Formatting

  • Indent all lines five spaces after the first line.
  • Author(s) names are typed last name, first name, middle initial.
  • Reference list entries are alphabetized by the authors last names.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles. Use italics when referring to books and journals.
  • If no author is given, then continue with the title of the item.

APA Bibliographic Citation Generator Websites

APA Print Sources

For more information go to APA Style Examples.

Book or eBook

Book: Last name , F. M. and Last name F. M. (year of publication). Title of book. City: Publisher.

  • Include the DOI number or stable web link if available for an ebook.
  • Example:
    • Tanaka, S. (2006). Climate Change. Toronto: Groundwood Books.
  • Example:

Journal Article

Last name, F. M. & Last name, F. M. (year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number if available), (page numbers). If the journal article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the last period.

  • Example:
    • King, N. S., & Kirwilliam, S. (2011). Permanent post-concussion symptoms after mild head injury. Brain Injury, 25 (5), 462-470.

Magazine

Last name , F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Magazine Title, Page numbers. If the magazine article has a DOI, include the DOI in the reference after the last period.

  • Example:
    • Dittrich, L. (2012, O.). Easy come, easy go. Bicycling, 57 .

Encyclopedia or Reference Article

If no author is listed, then start with the article title (year published).

Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. (Year Published). Article title. In Encyclopedia name (pp. (page numbers)). City, State: Publisher.

  • Example:
    • Ciment, J. (2008). Poetry. Encyclopedia of the jazz age (pp. 413-414). Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

APA Citation Tutorials

APA Electronic Sources

General Formatting for Electronic Resources

  • APA does not use spaces with brackets.
  • Web address are not required for electronic databases.
  • Include the year, month, and date in references. Use the year of publication if the month and date are not available. If no date is available use n.d.
  • Include the author(s) if available.
  • Indent all lines five spaces after the first line.

For more information go to APA Style Examples.


General website: page or document
Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of document. Name of website. Retrieved http://web address

List as much of the information as possible

  • Example:
    • Bambach, C. (2012). Leonardo da Vinci, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/leon/hd_leon.htm

Online magazine article

Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

  • Example:
    • Luckerson, V. (2013, January 25). 10 tips for getting the most out of college. Time, 109. Retrived http://business.time.com/2013/01/25/10-tips-for-getting-the-most-out-of-college-financial-aid/?iid=biz-main-lead

Article or publication retrieved from an electronic database

  • Include database information, URL is not required.
  • Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as blogs and wikis.
  • Include the DOI number if available instead of the web address after the last period.
  • Examples would be electronic databases like AtoZtheWorld, Explora, EBSCOhost, and Opposing Viewpoints

Last name, F. M., & Last name, F. M. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

  • Examples:
    • Badgerlink :
      • Hemenway, C. (2012). The Steep Price of Sandy's 'Minor' Wind Damage. National Underwriter / P&C , 116 (37), 8.
        • Include DOI number after the last period if available.

Online encyclopedia or reference book

Same as a print book.


Electronic books

Same as a print book.